ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - Placement of healthy sperm into the female reproductive tract.

ASSISTED HATCHING - Microscopic surgery to facilitate the implantation of the developing embryo.

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ( ART ) - Various techniques used to manipulate oocytes ("eggs"), sperm, or embryos to enhance fertility.

BLASTOCYST TRANSFER - The transfer of the embryo(s) to the uterus at an advanced stage of development: day 5 or 6 after oocyte fertilization.

EMBRYO DONATION - Embryos produced from a donating couple's oocytes and spermatozoa.

EMBRYOLOGIST - A trained fertility medical specialist or scientist specializing in assisted reproduction and in handling of human sperm, oocytes and embryos.

EMBRYO - The early stage of development of the dividing fertilized oocyte.

ENDOMETRIOSIS - The spread of normal uterine lining into the pelvis or to other areas outside the uterine cavity. Commonly affects women during their reproductive years. Often, but not always, accompanied by severe cramping, pain during intercourse and could possibly cause infertility.

IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF) - Oocytes are removed from the woman's ovary usually by ultrasound guidance and incubated with sperm in a test tube. The newly formed embryos are transferred to the woman's uterus with using special catheter.

INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION (ICSI) - Micromanipulative technique, developed for treatment of severe male infertility. By using microtools a single sperm is injected into an oocyte, bypassing the need to penetrate the oocyte. The resulting embryo is then transferred to the uterus.

INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION (IUI) - Prepared sperm suspension is introduced directly into the woman's uterus to bypass the need to swim through the cervical mucus. IUI is particularly effective in cases of mucus factor, male infertility or unexplained infertility.

LAPAROSCOPY - Surgical inspection of abdominal organs or small surgery by using small telescopic instruments inserted through the abdominal wall.
In treatment of infertility Laparoscopy is used for direct visual examination of the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the uterus. (Operation is performed under the general anesthesia).

MICROMANIPULATION - Surgery performed on oocytes and embryos using microscopic instru-ments. Two examples are ICSI and Assisted Hatching (AHA).

MICROSURGERY - Microscopic reconstruction surgery of the fallopian tubes.

OOCYTE - A female gamete ("egg").

OOCYTE DONATION - Oocytes donated to women whose ovaries fail to produce usable
oocytes, or who have a genetic disorder that may be passed on to the child.

OOCYTE DONOR - A women who provides donated oocytes to other infertile women. Before giving donated oocytes donor should be investigated for infectious diseases and then pass ovarian stimulation like for IVF to produce oocytes for donation.

OVULATION - The release of an oocyte from the ovary, usually occurring around the day 14th of normal menstrual cycle.

SPERM DONATION - Considered when the male has no spermatozoa, when the male is a carrier of a known genetic disorder or when a single women wish to become pregnant. Donated sperm is received from healthy sperm donor.

SPERM DONOR - Sperm donor is a person who provides his sperm for treatment of infertility of other couples. Sperm donor must be screened for infections and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV, hepatitis B,C and others.

ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION - A procedure which allow observing internal organs by using equipment which produce high frequency sound waves. During IVF cycle is used to monitor growth of ovarian follicles, to retrieve oocytes, control appearance of pregnancy and to follow the development of featus.