Problems with sperm production
The most common causes of male infertility are called:
- Azoospermia, no sperm cells are produced
- Oligospermia, where few sperm cells are produced
- Teratospermia, where a high proportion of sperm is abnormally shaped
Sometimes, sperm cells are malformed or die before they can reach the egg. In rare cases, a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis or a chromosomal abnormality can cause male infertility.
Around one in three cases of male infertility are caused by blockages or absence of tubes which prevent sperm passage. This could be caused by injury, genetic abnormality, or a vasectomy.
It is usually a good sign if you have ever conceived a baby with any partner in the past, but this may not mean that your sperm is compatible with your current partner.
Other factors that adversely affect sperm quality and numbers include:
- Excessive drinking
- Drugs, including steroids and recreational use
- Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI)
- Frequent exposure to extreme heat (working in hot temperatures, or regular saunas)
- Working in cramped conditions (for example, truck drivers)
- Acute viral illness
- Operations for undescended testes or hernias
Sports injuries to the groin or testes will only have an impact on sperm production in extremely severe cases.
This sperm can be used for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Before retrieving the sperm it is necessary to check the genetic make-up as some abnormalities of the Y chromosome (male chromosome) indicate that finding sperm is unlikely. Furthermore, if genetic abnormalities are found, a couple must be counselled as rarely a genetic problem causing infertility may be inherited by a male child. Sperm that are retrieved can be used fresh (the same day) or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later microinjection.
If a couple is experiencing infertility as a result of retrograde ejaculation, sperm may be retrieved through a sample provided to the Nairobi IVF andrology laboratory, whereby the ejaculate is centrifuged and the sperm can either be injected directly into the woman through intrauterine insemination, IVF or ICSI. Sometimes a urine sample after ejaculation may be helpful to make the diagnosis and to obtain viable sperm for use in fertility treatment.
A Vasovasotomy or vasectomy reversal (where the inner and outer layers of the vas deferens are stitched back together) is one of the treatment options, allowing for sperm to travel from the testicles to the outside of the body, via the ejaculate. This option is only available for reversal of vasectomy and is not suitable for treatment of other causes of obstruction
Another option for treating occlusion is a testicular biopsy, where sperm is directly removed from the testes and stored for possible use with IVF/ICSI in the future or used in a fresh IVF cycle utilising ICSI.
The options can be discussed with your specialist who will recommend the best option for you.
After a formal diagnosis, Hyperprolactinaemia can be treated with either medication or surgery. If hyperprolaconaemia is the sole cause of male infertility it can usually be successfully treated to achieve complete resolution of symptoms and achievement of spontaneous pregnancy.